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Calvin Apodaca

Graduated: June 12, 2021

Thesis/Dissertation Title:

Maybe They Had a Bad Day: How Marginalized Patients React To Bias in Healthcare and Struggle to Speak Out

Marginalized people, including Black, Indigenous, People of Color (BIPOC) and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender and gender diverse people (LGBTQ+) are subject to implicit bias during healthcare interactions which negatively impacts patient-provider communication and the quality of care. In this qualitative study, we collected 25 personal stories of unfair treatment from patients from marginalized populations. We report on the patients’ reactions to implicit bias that affected their health care experience.


Drs. Wanda Pratt-Chair, Andrea Hartzler